Monitoring System of Greenhouse Gases Emissions Project in Rio de Janeiro Municipality

Artigo apresentado na 37a Conferência da Associação Internacional de Avaliação de Impacto – International Association for Impact Assessment – IAIA 2017

Presenting Author: Ivan Carlos Maglio. Coauthor(s): Eduardo Alves NederLeonardo Machado Maglio and Iara Verocai

ABSTRACT

The Rio de Janeiro municipal government has set Climate Change as a priority. The aim is the consideration of global warming issues in the context of urban planning for defining actions and measures to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions in the city.

In 2011 the Climate Change and Sustainable Development Municipal Policy has been implemented by the Municipal Environmental Secretariat (SMAC), which has required every four years updates of the municipal GHG emissions Inventory (2005 has been the monitoring base year) and the definition of emissions reduction targets.

After performing three gas emission inventories, Rio de Janeiro municipal government has developed a project with the support of the World Bank, for designing and operating a Web System on GHG Emission Monitoring and executing the 4th Inventory based on data collected in 2016.

The project also aims at capacity-building and staff training in order to maintain and update inventories of GHG emission, implement measures to reduce them, and elaborate mitigation, adaption and resilience measures on climate change effects.

This paper presents the fundamentals that helped devising the monitoring system framework and the possible system outputs. It also shows the benefits that other cities could obtain by implementing this type solution to help their countries to reach the Paris Agreement reducing targets.

 INTRODUCTION

The first urban climate initiatives started in the early 1990s when a number of cities, mainly in Europe and North America adopted climate change policies in their agendas, focusing on measure to reduce GHG emissions. (BULKELEY, BROTO, EDWARDS G, 2012)

BULKELEY (2010) mentions that during the 1990s and 2000s the number of cities concerns about climate change grew significantly, mainly after the Rio United Nations Conference on Environment and Development of 1992. Then, important local organizations were formed in order to address climate change issues, including ICLEI´S (Local Governments for Sustainability).

The increase of extreme climate events frequency and intensity observed in recent years had its connection with climate change confirmed in 2011 by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (IPCC, 2012), attracting world attention to this theme.

In 2010, Brazilian government established its National Policy on Climate Change (PNMC – Law Nº. 12,187/2009 and Decree Nº. 7,390/2010). Although not included in the list of countries required to reduce their emissions (Annex 1 of the Kyoto Protocol), PNMC defined mitigation actions to reduce 36.1% to 38.9% GHG emissions by the year 2020 as a voluntary national commitment this is equivalent to 1,168 million to 1,259 million tonCO2eq (Decree 7,390 / 2010). To achieve these goals, the PNMC has established the developed sectoral mitigation and adaptation plans at the local, regional and national levels.

Brazil ratified the Paris Agreement on Climate Change on September 12 of 2016, confirming the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) goals to reduce GHG emissions by 37% below 2005 levels in 2025 and by 43% below 2005 levels in 2030 (INDC, 2015). On 4 November 2016 the Paris Agreement entered in force, after the minimum conditions was achieved (UNFCC, 2016).

The achieved of these goals will require a strengthening of local government actions. Stern N. (2006) and IEA (2008) (apud Bulkeley, 2010. 230p) stated that the cities may be responsible for up to 75% of the carbon dioxide anthropogenic emissions. Such rate should raise once two-thirds of the global population are expected to live in urban areas until 2050 (GHGP-GPC, 2014).

Against this backdrop, municipalities should be more actively involved in combating climate change by drawing up their inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and efficient public policies to define and achieve their emissions reduction targets.

For GHGP-GPC (2014) an inventory of emissions is the first step in the creation of a local action plan to reduce their emissions, monitor progress, and take effective action on mitigating climate change.

Despite the importance of urban centers for reducing GHG emissions, Brazil still has a lack of mandatories elements to ensure municipalities actions towards the compliance of these reduction targets. The Brazilian Climate Change Policy (PNMC – Política Nacional de Mudanças Climáticas) has as one of its guidelines the encouragement and support for regional and local governments, productive sectors, academia and NGOs in the development and execution of policies, plans, programs and actions related to climate change (Brazil – PNMC, 2009). However, there is no obligation for these federative entities to carry out their inventories.

 METHODS

In 2007, Dubeux and Rovere discussed the importance of controlling GHG Emissions in Rio de Janeiro, concluding that “planning activities at the municipal level can incorporate the greenhouse effect problem in their variables (…). This new attitude can contribute to the climate issue and raise resources under the clean development mechanism. This additional income from GHG emissions reduction projects can help control local pollution and achieve other types of benefits such as lower public expenditure, traffic improvement, reductions in atmospheric pollution, among other aspects important to the quality and everyday life of communities.”

Carloni (2012) suggests that cities GHG emissions inventories can be important tools for identifying opportunities to implement public and business emission reduction policies. The results of the inventory, together with other statistical information, such as population and economic growth, and urban occupation and expansion, allow the development of scenarios and the identification of the need for intervention by the authorities through the creation of public policies.

The first Rio’s GHG inventory was presented in 2000 for the emissions of 1990, 1996 and 1998, considering the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This three main greenhouse gases were analyzed in 2010 in the emission inventory of 2005, and in 2012 for the sectors of Energy; Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU); Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) and Solid Waste.

A permanent international challenge was the adoption of different methodologies for the elaboration of city GHG inventories. The lack standardization makes comparisons between cities difficult and increases the questioning of data quality. To address this issue, in 2011, WRI, ICLEI and C40 launched a joint initiative to develop a global protocol for accounting and reporting GEE of cities: The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (GHGP-GPC, 2014).

In the inventory of 2012, the municipality or Rio considered this Global Protocol methodology to present its emissions, which had been calculated in 22.6 million tons of CO2 equivalent (Mt CO2e). Also, the estimates for 2005 (11.6 Mt CO2e) was reviewed and the action plan for emission reduction was presented for he sectors under municipal responsibility (Energy, AFOLU and Waste) for the years of 2016, 2020 and 2025.

After conducting three municipal inventories of GHG emissions and in accordance with the Municipal Policy on Climate Change and Sustainable Development (Law Nº 5,248/2011), Rio de Janeiro City decided for periodical update its inventories for which a GHG Emission Monitoring System has been decided to be implemented in accordance whit the GCP.

Using this background and the previous municipal experience on climate change, the monitoring system objectives and operational structure were determined. The system development is expected to begin in 2017 with the technical and financial assistance of the World Bank, as part of the Strengthening Public Sector Management Project, called Riode Excelência.

The main system characteristics and functionalities and database are: in addition to the three gases mentioned previously, consider the hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and the black carbon: contemplate different categories of GHG emissions, separating them by type and origin; review of past inventories in events of significant methodologies actualization, as well as permitting the system actualization; and allow remote querying and data manipulation with different levels of editing permissions.

The implementation of the Web System will facilitate the control of GHG emission data through the elaboration of appropriate tools for collecting, processing and storing information, along with training the municipal technical staff for its continuous updating. Additionally, it will enable the follow-up of local Action Plan for reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions, meet targets set by cities, and guide and identify in real time the most critical sectors.

Once the infrastructure is created and its acceptance test approved, the system will be completed with previous inventories information to create a historical emission database. This activity will enable the municipality to verify the evolution of emissions per sector and the effectiveness of the implemented policies.

Then, the 2016 emissions data will be gathered by an application of online forms under the supervision of the Environmental Secretariat to be then insert in the system. The 2016 GHG Inventory will be elaborated in 2017, through the system, providing all the necessary information for reviewing policies and action plans and checking emission reduction and mitigation targets.

In 2016, Rio Environmental Secretary also set the Strategy for an Adaptation Plan on Climate Change in the City with the collaboration of COPPE – Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate Studies and Engineering Research of  Rio de Janeiro, Federal University (SMAC, 2016).

 DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

This system aims to strengthen the municipality on facing climate change by creating a protocol for data collection and continuous analysis of the effectiveness of implemented policies.

An additional, the project has its focus on environmental secretariat capacity building and staff training for maintaining and updating GHG emission inventories, implementing measures to reduce GHG emissions, and elaborating mitigation, adaption and resilience measures on climate change effects, thus reducing financial needs and hiring of external consultants.

As the project follows all international standards on analyzing GHG emissions, it can be replicate for others local governments interested to improve their actions to combating climate change.

REFERENCES

Bulkeley H. 2010. Cities and the Governing of Climate Change. Durham. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2010; Vol.35: 229-253p.

Bulkeley H, Broto V, Edwards G, 2012 – “Towards Low Carbon Urbanism” from Local Environment” – The Sustainable Urban Development Reader. Third Edition. Edited by Stephen M. Wheeler and Timothy Beatley. p. 101-106, 2014

Brazil – PNMC, 2009 – Lei n° 12.187 de 29 de Dezembro de 2009 que institui a Política Nacional sobre Mudança do Clima – PNMC e dá outras providências: Brasília, 2009.

Brazil – 2010 – Decreto N° 7.390 de 9 de dezembro de 2010 que Regulamenta os arts. 6°, 11 e 12 da Lei no 12.187, de 29 de dezembro de 2009, que institui a Política Nacional sobre Mudança do Clima – PNMC, e dá outras providências: Brasília, 2010.

Brazil. INDC, 2015. Pretendida Contribuição Nacionalmente Determinadas para Consecução do Objetivo da Convenção-Quadro das Nações Unidas sobre Mudanças do Clima. Brasília, Brasil – 10p.

Carloni, 2012 – CARLONI, F.B.B.A – Gestão do inventário e do monitoramento de emissões de gases de efeito estufa em cidades: o caso do Rio de Janeiro – Tese de Doutorado – Programa de Planejamento Estratégico – Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ/COPPE, 2012. 180p.

Debeux, C.B.S; Rovere, E.L.L – 2007. Local perspectives in the control of greenhouse gas emissions – The case of Rio de Janeiro. Cities, Vol. 24, No. 5, p. 353–364, 2007

GHGP-GPC, 2014 – Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission inventories – As Accounting and Reporting Satandar for Cities. World Resources Institute, C40 Cities – Climate Leadership Group e ICLEI – Local Government for Sustainability. 176p.

IEA, 2008 – International Energy Agency (IEA). 2008. World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: IEA

IPCC, 2012: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp.

UNFCC, 2016 – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change – available at http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9444.php.  Accessed in 07 October 2016.

Rio de Janeiro (city), 2011 – Law Nº 5,248 / 2011 – Municipal Policy on Climate Change and Sustainable Development

SMAC, 2016 – Plano de Adaptação da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro às Mudanças Climáticas – Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for the City of Rio de Janeiro, SMAC-COPPE/UFRJ. December 2016.

Stern N. 2006. Stern review on the economics of climate change. London, HM Treas./Cabinet Off. http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.htm

 

Sustainability in infrastructure projects proposed for São Paulo state / Brazil and their vulnerability to climate change Presenting Author: Jose Luis Ridente Junior | Coauthor (s): Fabiola Sacchielle Pagliarani, Ivan Carlos Maglio and Carlos Henrique Aranha.

 

Abstract Considering the scenario of climate change, in accordance with the latest reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it’s possible to verify that the frequency of extreme climatic events tends to be higher, with potential consequences not completely known as of yet. In this context, this article focuses on analyzing some environmental studies on infrastructure projects in São Paulo state, considering the different geomorphological compartments and their potential environmental fragilities in face of climatic changes. Key words: climate change, infrastructure, environmental impacts assessment

Introduction The studies on climate change present a change in the dynamics of the climate over the past few decades, whose models indicate a continuity in the times that follow, and this has been assumed in this article. As per the first National Assessment Report (Relatório de Avaliação Nacional) – RAN1 of the Brazilian Panel of Climate Change (Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas) – PBMC, the climate in Brazil will be warmer, with a gradual increase varying from 1° to 6° C by the year 2.100 in relation to the average temperature recorded at the end of the 20th century. In the South and Southeast regions of the country, an increase in rainfall is also expected. The environment of São Paulo state The predominant climate in São Paulo state is Tropical Atlantic, in areas with proximity to the coast, and Tropical Altitude, which prevails in the interior, in places of high altitudes. The average annual temperature ranges from 20° to 22° C. The annual precipitation average is around 1.400 mm, mainly concentrated in the summer. However, in the Serra do Mar Mountains the average is over 2.500 mm per year. The state is located in the southeastern region of Brazil and presents diverse landscapes. According to ALMEIDA (1964), the state presents four major geomorphological domains, from east to west: the Coastal Plains, Atlantic Plateau, Peripheral Depression and Western Plateau, according to Figure 1 and Table 1. FIGURE 1 – Synthesis of the geomorphological compartmentalization of São Paulo state and its environmental fragilities according to ALMEIDA (1964).

FIGURE 1 – Synthesis of the geomorphological compartmentalizaton of São Paulo state and its environmental fragilities according to ALMEIDA (1964).

FIGURE 1

TABLE 1

 

Photos: Main geological, hydrological and climatic processes occurring in São Paulo state, which will undergo a change in its dynamics in the face of climatic changes. Undertow Landslides Floods Erosion Strong Winds

Doc2

In a rather general way, this table presents a picture of São Paulo state, and a scenario study of the projects that have been considered in this article.

The occupation history of this territory was marked by the transposition of the Serra do Mar Mountains, located between the Coastal Plain (Port of Santos) and the Atlantic Plateau (where the São Paulo metropolitan area is located). The escarpment of Serra do Mar has a slope of 800 meters and is an important route of connection between the industrial poles that have been developed in these regions. Its transposition has been carried out mainly by means of highways, railroads and pipelines, establishing the greatest economic flow of the country. 3 Infrastructure in São Paulo state In Brazil, São Paulo state has the largest Gross Domestic Product – GDP – in the whole country, due to its industrial production, agriculture and services. It has a transportation infrastructure that stands out in relation to the rest of Brazil. The state’s 44 million inhabitants are scattered across a territory of 248.209 km ² with three cities containing populations of more than one million inhabitants. Namely, there are São Paulo, which is South America’s largest metropolis with almost 11 million inhabitants. Additionally, there are also six cities with more than 500.000 inhabitants. In this context, planners have considered the region of the macro metropolis of São Paulo state, which represents the largest and most complex urban system in the country. This area has been consolidated over the last ten years. At the end of this century’s first decade, there were 173 municipalities in total which accounted for 73.3% of the total population as well as 82.7% of the state’s GDP and 27.7% of the Brazilian GDP. The most urbanized area of the country, this immense region is a result of the unfolding of demographic, economic and urban dynamics. Methodology Despite the infrastructure mainly being installed during the 1960s and 1970s, and from its expansion and improvements implemented in the last two decades, it is still considered insufficient and obsolete for the continuity of the growth of the economy of the state and the country, and for the well- being of the population. To meet expected demand, it is necessary to expand and modernize the entire network for different modes of transportation. In this way, this research was prepared to analyze which of the enterprises implemented in the last two decades in the state have in their preliminary environmental studies some approach or consideration regarding the new conditions predicted by global climate change. The considered criteria to the research was: • Selection of infrastructure projects in the last 20 years that were the subject of environmental studies to obtain environmental licenses; • Identification of major transportation projects; • Projects located in the different geomorphological compartments of the São Paulo State; and • Selection of projects, among those selected, that the authors of of the paper had some technical participation in any stage of environmental impact assesment, or during the construction phase of the projects. Analysis of the expected environmental impacts and mitigation measures proposed in the studies. Various Reports of Environmental Impact Studies were analyzed for modernization and deployment of highways (Rodoanel, Tamoios), improvements in public transportation system for urban trains, new subway lines (Linha 5 Lilás), new pipeline networks (GASPAJ) and implementation of underwater tunnels (Submerso Santos-Guarujá). The projects that are the objects of these studies are located in different environments of the state, being susceptible to different types of fragilities and vulnerabilities. 4 Although the analysis shows that enterprises with more modern projects and construction techniques are foreseen, and that new themes are being incorporated, the explicit approach on risks to climate change have not been realized. It is evident in the environmental studies that the analysis of the environment in an integrated way predicts the occurrence of surface processes in function of the behavior of the land and occupation. However, in none of them has their behavior in a future scenario under more severe climatic conditions been predicted, and as a result of the necessary design changes if there are significant changes in the dynamics of their particular weaknesses. Based on the analysis of vulnerabilities defined by natural conditions and how the land was occupied, the IPCC wrote the 5o report of Working Group II, focusing on the concepts of risk analysis. The PBMC showed in the RAN1 that in the Southeast of the country, the projections indicate a relatively low temperature increase between 0,5o C and 1o C until 2040, with a 5% to 10% increase in rain. Between 2041 and 2070, trends of gradual increase of 1,5o C to 2o C in temperature and 15% to 20% in rainfall should be maintained. However, such trends should become even more pronounced at the end of the century, when the climate is expected to be between 2,5o C and 3o C warmer and between 25% to 30% rainier. In this way, it can be considered that due to existing fragilities and with the increase of the occurrence of extreme events in a densely occupied region, more areas will be vulnerable and with a greater risk of accidents. Considerations Due to the fragilities of the environments in the state conditioned by the natural characteristics and the occupation of the land, the new enterprises are subject to the phenomena that may result in behavior alterations of frequency, intensity, comprehensiveness and significance. In this way, it is possible to consider that: • The Coastal Plain may intensify the processes of localized floods, salinization of groundwater, instability in building foundations, etc., due to sea level rises, elevation of the water table, liquefaction of the land and occurrences of undertows; • The Atlantic Plateau may have an intensification of slope and flooding processes due to the increase in rainfall, which is already very high. In this way, the installed infrastructure would be subject to change in the vulnerability of wherever the it is located; • In the Peripheral Depression and in the Western Plateau, the intensification of the processes of linear and superficial erosion can be predicted as well as of slides on the steepest slopes, in addition to floods located in the fluvial plains. As well as this, the increase in temperature may change the dynamics of agricultural production in the region. Considering this framework, strategies and actions that will advance the generally resilient routes and infrastructures for sustainable development must be planned. Improving living conditions, the economy and environmental management, which must be implemented in the context of new environmental studies, is also recommended. 5 According PBMC (2014), the socio-environmental consequences of extreme events in Brazil in recent years reinforces the need for a national adaptation strategy in various sectors of economic activities. Although international reports and scientific studies point to uncertainties in climate modeling, especially due to the difficulty of predicting socioeconomic aspects (GHG emissions, demography, technological development, among others), environmental studies for new developments in São Paulo state need to: • Incorporate forecasts considering the predictions of increase occurrence of extreme events; • Incorporate new design criteria for drainage systems, for security of structures, among others; • Incorporate new systems of operational monitoring of infrastructure to increase the efficiency of forecasting actions and alert to the occurrence of these extreme events; • To develop specific mitigation plans and contingency plans that incorporate new emergency operational procedures and protocols for harm reduction in natural disaster cases at the respective sites identified to withstand exceptional climatic events; • Research and incorporate (even international) experiences of actions that increase resilience or responsiveness to extreme events; • Apply globally a consolidated knowledge to international organizations such as the IPCC, UNISDR, to increase the engineering solutions of the infrastructure projects to be developed – incorporating future forecasts, testing and applying modeling in order to increase its accuracy.

Bibliographic references

ALMEIDA, F.F. M. 1964. FUNDAMENTOS GEOLÓGICOS DO RELEVO PAULISTA. Bol. Inst.
Geográfico e Geológico, n.41, São Paulo. 1964

BRASIL. Pretendida Contribuição Nacionalmente Determinada do Brasil . Convenção-Quadro das
Nações Unidas sobre Mudança do Clima. Disponível em:
http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/images/ed_desenvsust/BRASIL-iNDC-portugues.pdf Acesso em: 07 feb. 2017

BRASIL. Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Secretaria de Políticas e Programas de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento. Coordenação-Geral de Mudanças Globais de Clima. MODELAGEM CLIMÁTICA E VULNERABILIDADES SETORIAIS À MUDANÇA DO CLIMA NO
BRASIL / Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Brasília: Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, 2016. 590p. Il

CETESB. Companhia Ambiental do Estado de S DUTOS NO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO. Disponível em: <http://emergenciasquimicas.cetesb.sp.gov.br/tipos-de-acidentes/dutos/dutos- no-estado-de-sao-paulo/> Acesso em: 31 jan. 2017

ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO. Sistema Hidroviário Paulista. Disponível
em: http://www.dh.sp.gov.br/sistema-hidroviario-paulista/ Acesso em: 07 feb. 2017

EIA Gasoduto Paulínia-Jacutinga – ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL GASODUTO PAULÍNIA- JACUTINGA – GASPAJ – PETROBRÁS 2006

EIA Rodoanel Norte – ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL RODOANEL NORTE. Desenvolvimento Rodoviário S.A. – DERSA. 2010.

EIA Rodoanel Sul – ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL RODOANEL SUL. Desenvolvimento Rodoviário S.A. – DERSA. 2004.

EIA Linha 5 – Lilás – ESTUDO DE IMPACTO AMBIENTAL LINHA 5-LILÁS DO METRÔ DE SÃO PAULO. Companhia do Metropolitano de São Paulo – METRÔ 2011

IBGE. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. 2014. ESTIMATIVAS DA POPULAÇÃO RESIDENTE NOS MUNICÍPIOS BRASILEIROS COM DATA DE REFERÊNCIA EM 1º DE
JULHO DE 2014. Disponível em:
http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv97744.pdf Acesso em: 08 fev. 2017

IPCC. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2012: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B.,
V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K.
Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, 582 pp.

PBMC. Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas, 2014a. BASE CIENTÍFICA DAS MUDANÇAS CLIMÁTICAS. Contribuição do Grupo de Trabalho 1 do Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas ao Primeiro Relatório da Avaliação Nacional sobre Mudanças Climáticas [Ambrizzi, T., Araujo, M. (eds.)]. COPPE. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, 464 pp.

PBMC. Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas. 2014b. IMPACTOS, VULNERABILIDADES E ADAPTAÇÃO ÀS MUDANÇAS CLIMÁTICAS. Contribuição do Grupo de Trabalho 2 do Painel Brasileiro de Mudanças Climáticas ao Primeiro Relatório da Avaliação Nacional sobre Mudanças Climáticas [Assad, E.D., Magalhães, A. R. (eds.)]. COPPE. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, 414 pp.

ROSS, J. L. S. & MOROZ, I. C.. MAPA GEOMORFOLÓGICO DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO. Revista do Departamento de Geografia, São Paulo, v. 10, p. 41-58, nov. 2011. ISSN 2236-2878. Disponível em: <http://www.revistas.usp.br/rdg/article/view/53703/57666&gt;. Acesso em: 10 feb. 2017.

IAIA17 Conference Proceedings | IA’s Contribution in Addressing Climate Change
37th Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment
4 – 7 April 2017 | Le Centre Sheraton | Montréal | Canada | http://www.iaia.org

 

Objetivos para o Desenvolvimento Sustentavel

Trata-se de um conjunto de objetivos definidos pela ONU, super importantes para a sustentabilidade e para aplicação em trabalhos de planejamento ambiental, e em especial nas Avaliações Ambientais Estratégicas de Políticas, Planos , Programas e Projetos Estruturantes de desenvolvimento. Também muito importantes para a política urbana e os Planos Diretores municipais e metropolitanos.

https://nacoesunidas.org/conheca-os-novos-17-objetivos-de-desenvolvimento-sustentavel-da-onu/

 

IAIA17: Impact Assessment’s Contribution to the Global Efforts in Addressing Climate Change – Le Centre Sheraton Montréal Hôtel Montréal, Canada 4-7 April 2017

CONFERENCE TOPICS – Integration of climate change in EIA, SEA, environmental and social management plans, and regional and project planning – Revised IA baselines integrating climate change data, uncertainties, and impacts – Adaptation and resilience from developed and developing countries – Climate finance and risk management – Major infrastructures adaptation measures and risk assessment – Capacity building transfer and communication about climate change to decision makers and different stakeholders – Climate change impact on policies, legislation, regulations, and “climate justice” – Climate change compensation and reduction/carbon capture and storage, market, and pricing – IAIA’s role in “climate smart(er)” impact assessment and the future – Climate change, extreme events, and impact assessment

Poster IAIA 2017 PPA (1)

IAIA 2017 – Paper

Monitoring System of Greenhouse Gases Emissions Project in Rio de Janeiro Municipality

Presenting Author: Ivan Carlos Maglio. Coauthor(s): Eduardo Alves NederLeonardo Machado Maglio and Iara Verocai

ABSTRACT

The Rio de Janeiro municipal government has set Climate Change as a priority. The aim is the consideration of global warming issues in the context of urban planning for defining actions and measures to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions in the city.

In 2011 the Climate Change and Sustainable Development Municipal Policy has been implemented by the Municipal Environmental Secretariat (SMAC), which has required every four years updates of the municipal GHG emissions Inventory (2005 has been the monitoring base year) and the definition of emissions reduction targets.

After performing three gas emission inventories, Rio de Janeiro municipal government has developed a project with the support of the World Bank, for designing and operating a Web System on GHG Emission Monitoring and executing the 4th Inventory based on data collected in 2016.

The project also aims at capacity-building and staff training in order to maintain and update inventories of GHG emission, implement measures to reduce them, and elaborate mitigation, adaption and resilience measures on climate change effects.

This paper presents the fundamentals that helped devising the monitoring system framework and the possible system outputs. It also shows the benefits that other cities could obtain by implementing this type solution to help their countries to reach the Paris Agreement reducing targets.

 

The Challenges for Climate Communication Post-COP21

A comunicação correta é essencial para demonstrar a questão dos riscos climáticos

Mark S. Meisner

Last fall I was in Helsinki to give two presentations at the 2nd ICOS Scientific Conference. ICOS is the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a European-wide research infrastructure that is developing a harmonized system for collecting and disseminating carbon cycle and greenhouse gas data. In their words, ICOS is an “organisation of eleven member countries and over 100 greenhouse gases measuring stations aimed at quantifying and understanding the greenhouse gas balance of the Europe and neighbouring regions.”

 Needless to say, the conference delegates were almost all bio-physical scientists who, I assumed, knew little or nothing about communication theory generally or climate communication research specifically. Keep that in mind as you read on because that informed my approach to the two talks.

In other words, if you are somewhat familiar with the research on climate communication, this should be pretty familiar ground. But if you are new to the topic, I hope this will be a good primer for you.

The…

Ver o post original 3.933 mais palavras

Interferencia Indevida no Licenciamento Ambiental!

Artigo excelente sobre o tema de autoria de Martinus Fillet e Antonio Fernando Pinheiro Pedro sobre a interferencia indevida no processo de licenciamento ambiental no Brasil. Concordo totalmente com o pensamento dos autores. Os impactos arqueológicos já estão no ãmbito dos estudos ambientais, e caso haja a potencialidade de ocorrencia de impactos sobre os bens arqueológicos nas Áreas de Influência Direta dos Impactos, e, já ha regras normativas para disciplinar a matéeria a partir do Diagnóstico e da Pesquisa Arqueológica caso esses indiquem que haja possibiliadde de presença de bens arqueológicos nas fases prévias à construção/implantação dos empreendimentos. Prospeções só em caso de haver positividade na presença de bens arqueológicos na ADA – Area de Influencia direta do empreendimento, para a fase anterior/ou concomitante ao inicio das obras. Mas fazer prospecções à priori como induz a Instrução Normativa nº 01/2015, do IPHAN, “é o exemplo mais recente e aprimorado desse desaforo ao bom senso, à racionalidade processual e ao interesse público.é uma invasão inoportuna e um desvio de foco dos estudos ambientais” Chega de corporativismo e tentativas de resolver a carencia de pesquisas arqueológicas sob o manto do licenciamento ambiental. Assim vão destruí-lo e tudo de bom que ele traz para a gestão ambiental. Esse manto não deve dar conta da ausencia de prospecções arqueológicas no país. Mas isso é um outro problema a ser tratado na política pública de proteção ao patrimônio arqueológico, histórico e cultural.

http://www.ambientelegal.com.br/interferencia-normativa-do-iphan-gera-perda-de-eficiencia-do-licenciamento-ambiental/#comment-168757